Топики по английскому

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Appearance. Внешность

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How important is it for you to be attractive? Although everyone wants to be good-looking, do you think beautiful people are always happy? I don’t think so. For example, it must be a problem to be a very beautiful woman, because some men may be more interested in looking at this woman than talking to her. They think of her like a picture rather than a person. Some people think that very pretty women and handsome men are stupid, as a rule. These people are thought to be only interested in their appearance. Some people believe that only unattractive people can be clever. But surely no one wants to be really ugly; and no one wants to be plain either — that is to have rather simple face that can be easily forgotten. Being attractive can help you find happiness, but it does not always make you happy. So maybe the best thing is not to worry about your appearance. It is more important to try to be an interesting personality. Because interesting people are always attractive.

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When we are ill, we call the doctor, and he examines us and diagnoses the illness.

When we have a headache, a stomachache, a sore throat, a cold or a pain in some part of the body, we call the doctor. He takes our temperature and our pulse. He examines our heart, our lungs, our stomach or the part where we have a pain and tells us what is the matter with us. He says: “You have a slight temperature”, or “You have the flu”, or “You have heart disease”. The doctor prescribes medicine, and gives us a prescription, which we take to the chemist, who makes the medicine. The doctor says: “Take the medicine twice a day or three times a day, before or after meals”. If you follow the doctor’s orders, you get better; if you disobey the doctor you may get worse or even die. If we have a temperature, we must stay in bed and take the medicine prescribed. If we cannot get better at home, we must go to hospital. If we are too ill to walk there, we go in the ambulance. When we have a toothache, we go to the dentist. The dentist examines our teeth. He says: “That tooth has a cavity. I must put in a filling”. If the tooth is too bad, the dentist extracts it.

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Washington, the capital of the USA, was founded in 1791. The city was named after the first president George Washington. The population of the city is nearly three million people. The Capitol is the centre of the city. It was built according to the plans of William Thornton, who was an amateur architect. It is situated on Capitol Hill. The White House is the place where the president of the USA lives and works. This house was first occupied in 1800 by John Adams, who was the first president to live in that house. The White House has 132 rooms. Washington has many sights, for example, the Library of Congress, the Lincoln memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and others. The National Gallery of Arts contains art collections by the great masters of the 14th to 18th centuries. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. Outside the city the Arlington National Cemetery is situated. John Kennedy was buried there. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is also situated there. The industry of the city is not well developed. But Washington is a large scientific and cultural centre. Many research and designing institutes are concentrated here.

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The first voyages along the coast of modern South and Central America were made by Amerigo Vespucci. That is why, in the 16th century German cartographer named this fourth part of the world after the explorer. At the beginning of the 17th century European colonies were founded on the territory of the modern USA. In 1620 first colonists landed at Plymouth Rock. They came from England on board the “Mayflower”. Most of them were Puritans or former Anglicans who were called pilgrims. Their hopes were connected with the promises of the Bible about the land “of honey and milk”, and America was thought to be this land. Later on Dutch, Spanish and Swedish colonies appeared. People who came to America were mostly farmers, who wanted to exploit new lands. The development of trade, industry and agriculture in the colonies constantly conflicted with the economic policy of Britain. After constant pressure on the colonies on July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress declared the United Colonies to be independent of Great Britain. The new state was called the United States of America and July 4 became its national holiday. The Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.

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What is “American” food? The answer is that it is part Italian, part British, part German, part Mexican, part Chinese… When people from other countries came to live in the US, they brought different cooking traditions. Some of them opened restaurants. Today Americans enjoy food from all over the world. Over the years some foreign dishes changed a little. Doughnuts were originally from Holland. In 1847 a young American boy told his mother that her doughnuts were never cooked in the middle. He cut out the centre and his mother cooked them — and they were very tasty! Maybe the US is most famous for “fast foods”. The first fast food restaurants served hamburgers, but now they serve other kinds of food too. Inside there is often a “salad bar”, where you can help yourself to as much salad as you want. Americans eat a lot, and when they go to a restaurant, they don’t expect to be hungry afterwards. Most restaurants will put a lot of food on your plate — sometimes it can be too much. But if you can’t finish it all, don’t worry: they will give you a “doggy bag” and you can take it home. Most Americans now have a light breakfast instead of the traditional eggs, bacon, toast, orange juice and coffee. But on weekends there is more time, and a large late breakfast or early lunch is often eaten with family or friends.

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Every nation has different customs and traditions, its own way of life. In Europe there are people who have lived in the same house and been in the same job for 20, 30 or more years. That’s not the American way of life. The Americans love change, they call it the spirit of adventure, a spirit that they think is more characteristic of America than of Europe. They like to move away, to change houses and jobs. While the Englishman thinks it is ill mannered to ask private questions, the American doesn’t feel that at all. He will tell you all about himself, his wife and family, and ask where you have come from, what your job is, how you like America and how long you are staying. The American prefers sociability. In his home he doesn’t object to being seen by everyone — he actually likes it. With this sociability goes overwhelming hospitality. A national Thanksgiving Day is perhaps the only holiday spent by the Americans at home. Table decorations follow a traditional pattern — a harvest of Indian corn, apples, oranges, walnuts and grapes. Flowers also bring the fall scene indoors. The centrepiece is the traditional roast turkey.

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One should start sightseeing in America from Washington. There are many beautiful parks and gardens in Washington. It is interesting to see the famous cherry trees, the gift from Japan. They were brought to America in 1912. The NASA museum is devoted to the USA achievements in the exploration of space. Capitol Hill is the highest place in the city. There is a law that forbids to build houses higher than the Capitol on Capitol Hill. From the Capitol to the White House Pennsylvania Avenue used for all processions and parades runs. The Lincoln Memorial and Washington Monument are the most famous ones in Washington. The Washington Monument is one of the most impressive sights in the city. It is situated in Potonic Park. It was erected to the memory of the first president of the USA in 1888. It is called “the Pencil” because it is one of the tallest stone constructions in the world and the tallest in the USA. There are many sights in Philadelphia, for example, the National Historical Park. You can also see the Liberty Bell, which is a symbol of freedom. The sound of this Bell told the people about the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence in July 1776. You can also visit the Philadelphia Museum of Art — one of the greatest art museums of the world. One should also visit New York, the city of skyscrapers with the Statue of Liberty. A new American Immigration Museum has been opened at the base of the statue. The Metropolitan Opera House, the Madison Square Garden, the Modern Arts Museum are popular among the tourists. One can also visit Lyndon B. Johnson Space Centre near Houston in Texas or go to Florida or California to enjoy the Atlantic or Pacific Ocean beaches. And I would like to see them all myself.

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There are very many large cities in the USA. Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the Potomac River. In comparison with such ancient historical cities as, for example, Rome, London, Moscow or Paris, Washington is quite young. The capital owes much to the first President of the USA — George Washington. It was G. Washington, who chose the place for the capital and laid in 1790 the corner-stone of the Capitol, where Congress sits. Washington has many historical places. The largest and highest among the buildings is the Capitol with its great House of Representatives and the Senate chamber.

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Washington is the capital of the USA. The city is named after George Washington, the first president of the USA. Washington stands on the river Potomac. Washington is a beautiful administrative city. In the centre of the city there is the Capitol, where the US Congress is situated. There is the White House, the residence of the President, in Washington. Washington has many sights, for example, the Library of Congress, the monument to George Washington, the Lincoln Memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and others. The monument to Washington, which is called “Pencil”, is 555 feet high. It is situated three blocks south from the White House. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. Outside the city the Arlington National Cemetery is situated. John Kennedy was buried there. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is also situated there. The largest and highest among the buildings of Washington is the Capitol. There are no sky-scrapers in Washington because no other building must be higher than the Capitol.

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 The USA occupies the central part of the North American continent. It borders on Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, by the Pacific Ocean in the west and by the Gulf of Mexico in the south. The present territory of the USA consists of three separate parts. The USA proper and Alaska are situated in North America. The Hawaii are situated in the central part of the Pacific Ocean. The area of the country is about 9,400,000 km2. Its population is about 256 million people. No general statement can be made about the landscape of the USA. It is a country of mountains and prairies, valleys and deserts. About one half of the territory in the west is occupied by the Cordilleras. In the east there are the Appalachian Mountains. Between these great mountain chains central and large valleys lie.

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